There is an opinion that the sign defining an ethnos largely depends on self-consciousness. What a person considers himself to be.
Interethnic tolerance — setting respectful attitude.
It would seem, what could be easier? For the first time, thoughts of tolerance began to appear even during religious wars. It was the mid 1500s. Henry IV the Great (Henry of Navarre, Heinrich Bourbon), who, as is known, changed his religion six times, spoke aloud about this. A great rarity even for that turbulent era. It suggests that he treated the question of religion and confession with a certain degree of tolerance, if not cynicism.
But no, not cynicism. In 1598, 26 years after the night of St. Bartholomew, he secured the signing of the adoption of what is called the Edict of Nantes, the edict of religious tolerance.
A little later, in the 1700s, there was a popular expression about the principles of freedom of speech, democracy, attributed to Voltaire: «I do not agree with a single word that you say, but I am ready to die for your right to say it.» Do you recognize the French? J
Gradually not only ethnic, but also cultural differences were determined. In the west, freedom of opinion dominated, in the east, concern about not letting one lose face, in Russia, humility.
Today, the concept of «tolerance» is finally defined. To talk about him, three conditions are necessary:
1 — Cultural diversity;
2 — Social and legal equality;
3 — Sense of security (did you notice that after attacks tolerance falls?)
It is the latter condition that dictates the need to rethink the concept. We need not so much “tolerance” in the classical sense. What we need today is to learn to protect our rights and interests, to achieve our goals, while at the same time not violating the rights of other people.
On the way to this, knowledge of 3 principles of communication is useful:
1 — Not only know, but also understand cultural differences;
2 — Not to encroach on the value system of another, not to affect national feelings and not to humiliate national dignity;
3 — The orientation towards the future is important, not towards the past.
Plus the knowledge of errors of perception of reality. Without going into the topic of cognitive distortion, we name 3 important attribution errors:
1 — Fundamental attribution error (Russia, the West): a person explains mistakes at the expense of personal qualities;
2 — Motivational attribution error: an attempt to explain success and failure. Luck — by personality, failure — by external causes, situation;
3 — Maximum attribution error: a person explains behavior due to belonging to a race or other social group.
Plus, ethnocentrism is the tendency of a person to evaluate various customs being based on the norms of his group. And here come:
1 — A preconceived idea: attitudes based on differences (racism, sexism, ageism, homophobia);
2 — Prejudice: a more complex phenomenon. Condemnation, assessment based on differences;
3 — Discrimination: negative behavior based solely on differences.
This is all peculiar to man, since ethnic values are social in nature.
Fortunately, the Lapierre paradox is proved. “People say one thing, but they do something completely different,” said Lapierre in his experiment.
The Lapierre experiment consisted of two separate stages. The first part of the experiment is the study of real behavior. Lapierre and his Chinese friends made a double car trip around the USA. During the period of travel from 1930 to 1933, they visited 67 hotels and 184 restaurants.
The second part of the experiment is the study of symbolic behavior. Six months after the trip, Lapierre sent his letters with the questionnaire to those establishments visited by travelers. The central question was: “Do you agree to accept representatives of Chinese nationality as guests in your establishment?”
Lapierre received completed questionnaires from 81 restaurants and 47 different hotels, that is, from half of the establishments visited. It should be noted that in the USA in the 30s negative attitudes were widespread relative to Asians.
To the question “Will you accept guests of Chinese nationality in your establishment?” NO answered in 43 hotels and 75 restaurants.
In practice, there was only one refusal.
No matter how paradoxical it may sound, Multiculturalism is the way to preserve cultural identity, interaction and participation in a multicultural society.
In the 80s, John Berry introduced the concept of “acculturation” — a change of culture that occurs in the process of constant direct contact between two different cultural groups. Thus forever reconciled the French and British, living in Canada.
And Angela Merkel, in turn, said that «The concept of multiculturalism, where representatives of different nations live happily alongside each other, does not work.»
That was the reason for identifying another nuance. Aboriginal people have the right to their territory. Multiculturalism works where all people are emigrants.
Quite often people, on top of it, have Ethnic attitudes. Here are some of them:
1 — We are the best, we know how to. From here, they try to impose their culture.
2 — Cultures are not equal, but the same. Everyone has clothes, housing, vehicles, norms, traditions, values. But not equal, because the priorities are different.
3 — Cultural Universalism. Cultures are equal and the same.
4 — Cultural relativism. Cultures are different, but equal. The current trend.
On the way to installation, categorization is inevitable:
1 — Regarding nature and surrounding things;
2 — In relation to myself (ethnic, cultural, professional identity. I am a woman, gender, age, profession);
3 — Regarding existing ideas (value system, value orientations, norms, rules, ideology, politics);
4 — Social — in relation to people.
The ethnic setting of a person is a system of a person’s attitude to time, nature, and values.
Today, borders are blurred, and ethnic identity is growing. People fight for their culture, for their language and for their sovereignty.
There is a paradox between globalization and the desire of people to preserve their culture.
What is culture? Culture is all that is not nature. Or, according to Freud, the transition of sexual energy into creative, that is, the product of sublimation.
We look forward to hearing from you,
La Classe Team